Chiapas separates from Guatemala and joins Mexico.
Proclamation of the Constitution, which is still in force today.
1919 (10 April)
Assassination of Emiliano Zapata.
Foundation of the National Revolutionary Party (the future Institutional Party of the Revolution, or PRI, by its initials in Spanish).
Presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas. Nationalization of the oilfields and railways. Acceleration of agrarian reform.
Presidency of Miguel Alemán. Industrialization of the country and strengthening of a capitalist economy.
The largest protest of the student movement culminates with the 2nd October massacre in Tlatelolco, Mexico City.
Presidency of Luis Echeverría. New period of populist reforms.
In Chiapas, the creation of the “Lacandon Community.” In a decree, the government grants to 66 Lacandon families a territory of 600,000 hectares, displacing 2,000 Tzeltal and Chol families from 26 communities.
Indigenous congress in San Cristóbal de Las Casas; the first public demonstration of the rising indigenous movement.
Presidency of José López Portillo, which ends in a major financial crisis.
100,000 Guatemalan refugees arrive in Chiapas, the majority of whom are indigenous, fleeing the massacres carried out by the Guatemalan army.
Presidency of Miguel de la Madrid. Beginning of the policy of neoliberal modernization.
1983 (17 of November)
Foundation of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN).
A major earthquake strikes Mexico City.
Presidency of Carlos Salinas de Gortari, after elections mired in controversy. Acceleration of neoliberal policies.
Significant fall in the price of coffee.
Reform of Article 27 of the Constitution, relating to agrarian reform. The reform signifies a weakening of the ejido and communal land-holding system. Demonstrations against the celebration of the 500th anniversary of Columbus’ discovery of America.